# Bernhard Riemann Biography, Life, Interesting Facts

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**Bernhard Riemann** was a **mathematician** and **philosopher** from **Germany**. His career was filled with **exceptional insights** into number theory and complex numbers. **Riemann** also produced several interesting results in differential geometry. Like the great **Srinivas Ramanujan**, Riemann’s brilliant career ended quite early when he died at an early age of 39 from **tuberculosis**.

Before that, he created a lot of material that guided future research in mathematics and was even used in **Einstein’s ****groundbreaking**** theory of relativity**.

## Childhood & Early Life

**Riemann** was born on September 17, 1826, in **Breselenz, Germany**. His full name was **Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann**. His star sign was **Virgo**. Riemann came from a very poor family, and his father was a Lutheran minister. His parents **Friedrich Bernhard Riemann** and **Charlotte Ebel**l produced six children – Riemann was the second eldest. His mother died when he was **very young**.

## Education

**Riemann** was homeschooled till he was ten years old. Afterwards, a local school teacher, **Mr. Schulz** took charge of his education. **Riemann** impressed Schulz with his mathematical skills and was sent to **Hanover** in 1840 for better education. In 1842, his grandmother died, and he enrolled in **Johanneum Luneburg – a gymnasium** School. Apart from Mathematics, he learned **Hebrew and theology** there. The director of the gymnasium was impressed by Riemann’s **mathematical prowess** and lent him books to study from. Riemann read them all quickly. **Riemann** went to the Univesity of Gottingen and also studied under the great Johann Carl **Friedrich Gauss and Moritz Stern**.

**Riemann** graduated from the University of Berlin in 1849 after studying under Jacobi, **Steiner, Eisenstein** and **Lejeune Dirichlet**. For his doctoral thesis, **Riemann** worked on complex variables with advice from Gauss and developed the theory of Riemann surfaces. He got his **Ph.D. in 1851**.

## Career

**Riemann** joined the University of **Gottingen as a Privatdozent** in 1852. He also began working free of cost for Weber. Riemann completed his habilitation by working on some unfinished work left behind by Fourier and developed the **idea of ****n-dimensional** Riemannian manifold. **Riemann** believed that space doesn’t need to be limited to **three dimensions only** and can be extended to **infinite dimensions**. He published his **Theory of Abelian Functions** in 1857 – considered to be one of the most important works in mathematics. In the same year, he was appointed as an **Extraordinary Professor** at the University of Gottingen.

In his career, **Riemann** made significant contributions to the theory of functions, complex analysis, and **non-Euclidean geometry.** The math he developed was crucial in **Einstein’s theory of relativity**. After 1861, his health began to **deteriorate**. He went to Italy for treatment but came back a year later. Seeing no improvement in his health, he **relocated to Selasca**, near **Lake Maggiore**. He wrote a lot of papers but published very few of them due to his untimely death. They were all published together **26 years after his death,** in 1892.

## Personal Life

**Georg Bernhard Rieman**n fell in love with **Elise Koch,** who was a friend of his sister. They married on June 3, 1862, and produced a daughter named **Ida.** She was born in Pisa in 1863.

## Death

**Riemann** contracted **tuberculosis** – possibly very early in his life. But, after his marriage, it took a severe form. Before it was diagnosed, he had already become very sick, and any improvements through **medical treatment were temporary**.

**Riemann** continued to work, even when he was ill and this worsened his condition. He died on July 20, 1866, with his **wife sitting next to him**.He was 39 years old.** To honor his memory, a lunar crater** is named after him.