# Isaac Newton Biography, Life, Interesting Facts

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Grantham, Midlands, United Kingdom

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Mathematician, physicist, and astronomer **Isaac Newton** was born in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth a small village in Lincolnshire on **January 4, 1643**.

His father was a farmer, **Isaac Newton Sr.**, who died before his son was born. Although financially well-off, Newton Snr. was illiterate. When **Newton** was three years old, his mother Hannah Ayscough remarried.

From that time onwards, **Newton** lived with his maternal grandmother, Margery Ayscough.

## Education

**Isaac Newton** was a pupil at The King’s School Grantham. School work included the classics, but he did not study mathematics or science at high school level. When he was 17, his mother removed him from school so he could farm. **Newton** disliked agriculture and was allowed to return to school. In 1661 he entered **Cambridge University** as a law student. He worked as a servant for wealthier students to help fund his education.

In his third year at Cambridge, **Newton** began studying mathematics and physics (called natural philosophy in those days). He also had an interest in alchemy. **Newton** was taught Aristotelian natural view despite the fact that **Galileo Galilei** had published Two New Sciences claiming a new scientific basis for the physics of motion twenty-five years previously. **Galileo's** work led **Newton** to forego what he was being taught at Cambridge and study the experimental works **Galileo, Kepler, Boyle, and Descartes**. As **Newton** became more familiar with their work, he began to believe that he could make discoveries. He focused his attention on gravity, light, color, vision, and atoms. At the end of his third year at Cambridge, **Newton** obtained a four-year scholarship. In 1665, he received his B.A. degree.

## Rise To Fame

**Isaac Newton** was 22 in 1655 when he made his first discovery. He discovered the generalized **binomial theorem** in mathematics.

When the Great Plague forced Cambridge to close in 1655, **Newton** returned home to Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth and continued his research. He returned to Cambridge in 1667.

## Career

Areas **Isaac Newton** concentrated on **calculus, gravity, optics, ****and**** light**.

When **Newton** was 24, he was elected as a **Fellow of Trinity College** and the following year, 1668; he obtained his M.A. degree. In 1669 he was appointed the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics. **Newton** won this appointment on the recommendation of **Isaac Barrow** who was vacating the position. Barrow’s proposal included the fact that he believed **Newton** had an extraordinary genius.

**Newton** retained the position as **Lucasian Professor of Mathematics** at Cambridge University until 1969.

## Newton’s Discoveries

**Newton’s** discoveries include the generalized the binomial theorem. He showed that sunlight is made up of all the colors of the rainbow. Built the world’s first reflecting telescope. **Discovered calculus**. Wrote the **Principia** which explained **gravity and motion** and which is considered one of the most important scientific books ever published. He found the **law of universal gravitation**. **Newton’s Laws** which formulated his three laws of motion. **Newton** explained how tides are caused by gravity between the earth moon and sun and proved that the earth is not perfectly spherical. The concept of a **Newtonian fluid** and **Newton’s Method** are both named after his discoveries.

## Personal Life

**Isaac Newton** died in **London**,** England** on the 31 March 1727.